Bio-geographical characteristics

Wildlife in the area of Bijelo Polje is pretty rich and diverse. This is a result of vast jagged relief, climate, geological and other factors. In particular, there are some differences between flora and fauna of the mountain, ravine and valley areas. Flora’s composition of the mountains like Bjelasica and Sijajevina is very versatile-so that you can find there the endemic plants that are rarely available in other areas .Due to many endemic plants , the region investigates more scientists seeking solutions for preserving these rare plant species.

Flora of this region in Montenegro is composed of Illyrian Central European, Western European, Alpine, Dacian and Mediterranean floral elements. Endemic plants are mostly present on Bjelasica and Sinjajevina but the most known are Pinus peuca Gris (Bark Pine), Pinus heldreichi Grist 9munika), Acer heldreicpii Orph (mountain maple), Daphne BLagyn Freger (yarrow rig), Beck bosniaca Iris (Iris), Nicolai Pant Viola (violet) and more. Alluvial plains and coastal regions of the Tara River, the Lim River and their tributaries are overgrown with willows, alders and marsh plants. Higher parts of the river valleys are covered with yellow orchards and meadows. There are oak, beech, hornbeam and other woods above the zone of anthropogenic culture depending on the quality and type of soil, humidity, exposure of the relief, terrain and other conditions. Among the hardwoods, the oak forest dominates up to 1000m; from 1000 to 1400 m the beech forest dominates. Above the beech forest starts the conifer forest among which the fir and pine forest are mostly spread. Above the belt of degraded forest, there is an area of vast pastures which grass is of a high quality for cattle. The structure is dominated by the hardwood forest cover of an unprofitable exploration because of the poor quality of wood.

The animal life of Bjelasica and Sunjajevina is heterogeneous. There are different sorts of animals that live in their forests: bears, wolves, foxes, deer, mountain goats, deer and mouflons. Birds are also numerous: eagles, owls, ravens etc. It is necessary to mention that the racial composition of livestock changes by man’s intervention in favor of those types that give large amounts of milk, wool and meat. Thanks to the complex of nature factors, wildlife is very diverse and numerous. Green valleys of the Tara and Lim Rivers make a strong impression of those who pass through these areas. When dr. William Saxe coming from Washington, in 1864 resided in Yugoslav, he stayed mostly period of time in Bijelo Polje and Mojkovac. Leaving Belgrade the reporters asked him: “What are your impressions after the first meeting with Yugoslav? ” He gave the following answer: “All the best. I’m delighted with your country and your people. Bijelo Polje is the most beautiful valley I’ve ever seen in my life but I’ve been through almost the whole world.”


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